Where are the subjects in these sentences? How many are there?
HECETV (to see): Type I verb
|Hecēs.||We see. (or Hecēyes)|
|Hecatskes.||You all see.|
|Heces.||She (he or it) Sees.|
Interrogative: Use these forms to ask a question
|Heciyv?||Do I see?|
|Hecēyv?||Do we see?|
|Hecetskv?||Do you see?|
|Hecatskv?||Do y'all see?|
|Hecv?||Does s/he see?|
|Hecvkv?||Do they see?|
Where are the subjects in these sentences? ......the objects?
What do verb-ending sounds tell you...?
Do you know the difference between a subject and an object?
Do you know the differences between 1st, 2nd
and 3rd persons?
|Efvn hecis.||I see a dog.|
|Efvn heciyv?||Do I see a dog?|
|Efvn hecetskes.||You see the dog.|
|Efvn hecetskv?||Do you (one) see a dog?|
|Efvn heces.||She sees a dog.|
|Efvn hecv?||Does he (she) see a dog?|
|Efvn hecvkes.||They see the dog. Note the "vk" infixed for plural|
|Efvn hecvkv?||Do they see the dog?|
Analyze and discuss these sentences, please...
|Efvn heces.||He sees the dog. (or she sees, or it sees)|
|Efvt heces.||The dog sees.|
|Efvt hecv?||Does the dog see?|
|Efvt cvheces.||A dog sees me.|
|Efvt cehecvkes.||The dogs see you.|
|Efvn hecetskv?||Do you see the dog?|
Explain the differences between these two verb forms:
|HECES||(HEC ... ES)|
Translate some of the following:
|The cat sees.||I see the cat.||The cats see.|
|A dog hears.||I hear a dog.||The dogs hear.|
|Does the cat see?||A cat sees dogs.||The dog hears a cat|
|Cats eat.||A cat eats a dog.||The cats eat a dog.|
Can subjects appear twice in a sentence?
Do subjects appear only once in a sentence?
Explain the differences in tense below. What is a tense...?
|Efvn hecis.||I see the dog.|
|Efvn hehcis.||I just saw the dog. (I saw the dog just then.)|
|Poset cessen pohes.||The cat hears a mouse.||
Pohetv, Type I
|Poset cessen pohhes.||The cat just heard a mouse.|
|Poset cessen pohhv?||Did the cat just hear a mouse?|
|Estet pokkon takkes.||Someone kicks the ball.||
Takketv, Type I
|Estet pokkon tahkkes.||Somebody just kicked the ball.||
Be careful of the "h" sound
|Estet cvtahkkv?||Did someone just kick me?|
|Tvlofvn vyis.||I go to town.||
Vyetv singular, Type I
|Tvlofvn vhyis.||I just went to town (very recently).|
|Tvlofvn vhyv?||Did she just go to town?|
|Tvlofvn vhyetskv?||Did you just go to town?|
|Hokten hehcetskv?||Did you just see the woman?|
|Cehecares.||I will see you.||
-ares, 2nd future
|Cehecarete?||Will I see you?||
|Hvtvm cehecvres.||She will see you again.||
-vres, 2nd future
|Hvtvm cehecvrete?||Will she (he) see you again?||
What kind of sounds do most Creek questions end with....?
The second (2nd) future tense (Future II) states it will happen sometime in the later future but not immediately.
The first (1st) future tense (Future I) states it is just about to happen immediately or what we Southerners call the "Fixin' to do it" tense of Southern English.
Now, let's move on to another
neat little point...(can
you discover what's so neat about it?)
|Pokkon takkis.||I kick the ball.|
|Pokkon estakkis.||I kick the ball (with my foot --implied).|
Grammatically, "es-" is an instrumental -- that is, it tells that an instrument or tool was used in the action. It indicates "what with" or "how" it was done. With the verb kick, foot is usually implied and no additional information is needed in Pvlvcekolv Creek to get the point across. Prefixing " es- " or its other forms (such as "s-" before verbs beginning with vowels) adds a sense of "with" to the verb meaning. Think of this as another labor saving device in Creek which saves time in learning additional new verbs... these particles such as "oh-," "vk-," "tvk-," and "es-" are real verb-meaning stretchers. You will learn more about all these particles in the future lessons.
Cepanet uewvn vklētkes. ("vk-" water, damp, low moist area)
Estimvt lētkv? (or Stimvt lētkv?) Estimv "who?"
Estvmen lētkv? (or Stvmen lētkv?) Estvmen "where?"
Kerretskv? Kerretv "to know, learn"
Beware of multiple translations & spellings available
for some words!
hokte - woman, hoktvke - women
Hunvntvket svpakles. or Honvntvket svpakles.
(svpakletv - 3 or more to stand)
hunvnwv/honvnwv - man, hunvntake/hunvntvke - men
Hoktvket hunvntaken a sehokes. (or asehokes)
An "-h-" is added to many, but not all, verb stems to indicate the immediate past tense--up to the last 24 hours or so.
Some stems require the addition of "-i-" instead of "-h-" Do you know why...? Well, think about the sound produced by adding the "-h-" and then think about the already built-in sound of "NVFKETV." Ah ha! It would make no difference to the ear. Solution...? A different sound for certain verb stems --usually, the addition of the "-i-" sound works well. This is called an INFIX.
Did she just hit me?
Did I just hit her? (the woman?)
She will definitely hit me sometime in the future. Future II
Hoktet pokkon escvnvfikes.
"Vc" is another form of "cv" -- I or me. Both descend from the original "VCV." Whichever sounds best is used; yes, there is a rule for that but later....okay? Here's a picture of its descent. Think about the English "A" and "AN." Can you guess when to use which form...? HINT: Vowels are involved.
VC / ... \ CV
What marks a word as the subject...? An object...? Have you discovered any new "particles" that modify or expand verb meanings...? Can you see how the use of "particles" as prefixes, suffixes, infixes and so forth, actually makes learning vocabulary easier? Sure you can-- learn one word and with the use of "particles" you will soon realize that you now understand many more words. "Now ain't that great!"
A QUICK LOOK AT TWO VERB TYPES
TYPE I Verbs: person endings that tell a lot of information...!
Ometv "to be" (model type I verb)
|1st person||omis||Omēs or omēyes|
|3rd person||omes, os||omakes|
For type I verbs, think about action, movement, motion, activity
TYPE II Verbs: prefixed pronouns to do the same work...
Yacetv "to want, need, desire" (model type II verb)
||cvyaces, cvyac||puyaces, puyac|
For type II verbs, think emotion, state of being, conditions, feelings