|Canet efvn hecet os. (or)||John is seeing a dog. "Os," contraction of omes."|
|Canet efvn hecet omes.||John is seeing (observing) a dog.|
|Melet yvhiketvn yvhiket os.||Mary is singing a song.|
|Lētket omv?||Is s/he running? "Omv?" (question form)|
|Henka, lētket os.||Yes sir, she is running. Yes, she runs.|
|Efvt fonen hompet omv?||Is the dog eating a bone? (or bones)|
|Efvt fonen hompv?||Does the dog eat bones? (or bone)|
If sentences included a main verb and an auxiliary (helping) verb, the helped main verb will end with "-t" and precede the helping verb that will be final in the sentence. The final declarative verb (one that makes a statement) will end with "-s" and an interrogative verb (one that asks a question) will end with a vowel: "-v? -te? -o? or a?" and occasionally, a question will in with "-onko?" if it is a rhetorical question not really requiring an actual answer.
Verbs stating a condition or state of being, also end with an "--s." These are TYPE II verbs. They all seem to have "to be" in their infinitive (raw dictionary form) such as Hotosetv "to be tired," Lauwetv "to be hungry," Eyacetv "to be in need of, or wanting," Vculetv "to be old," or Wvhnketv "to be thirsty."
They do not change their forms in the same way as TYPE I verbs do. They change by adding personal pronouns at the front of the verb--as a prefix. A few verbs can function as both TYPE I, and TYPE II. The "vk," a universal plural marker, is only inserted (infixed) where needed for clarity. Now, let's look at a model of a TYPE II verb, Lauwetv (also as Lowetv) "to be hungry," to see how pronouns are used to show who is being or doing the verb.
LAUWETV "to be hungry" (also as Lowetv)
|Cvlauwes||I am hungry||Pulauwes||we are hungry|
|Celauwes||You are hungry||Celauwvkes||you all are hungry|
|Elauwes||s/he or it is hungry||Elauwvkes||they are hungry|
Less formally, one may drop the "e-" in the third person of TYPE II
verbs and just say:
Lauwes - s/he or it is hungry. Lauwvkes - they are hungry..
Learn these personal pronouns. They're used with all TYPE II verbs.
|cv-||I am||pu-||we are (also as po)|
|ce-||you are (singular)||ce- -vk-||you are all|
|e-||s/he or it||e- -vk-||they are|
Time words such as now, soon, yesterday, tomorrow, last week or other
general terms such as exclamations (ælah), usually come at the beginning
of a sentence followed by a comma (kamv) or exclamation mark.
There are many casual forms in Creek that really consist of reductions or contractions of fuller words. The most common is "os" for "omes" and "tos" for "tomes." Another common reduction derives from "ometskes and ometskv" (you are, are you?). There is much variation in the way speakers contract these words such as: -ontskes or -ontskv? –unckes or -unces, -unckv? "Hecet ometskes" might come out as "Hecet ontskes." "Hece tunckes." or "Hece tunces." Each community has its own preference as to which casual or colloquial form to use. Follow local custom. Whoever said the rigid structure of Creek grammar doesn't allow for variety was mistaken--badly!
Analyze and translate:(Vocabulary is taken from examples in
First, try your hand at translating the Creek sentences into English.
|Efvt os.||Efv hvtkēt os.||Efvn hecetskv?|
|Efv hvtkan hecetskv?||Efvt ceheces.||Cemahes.|
|Efvt ahan heces.||Aha catēt os.||Efv hvtkat aha catan heces.|
|Efvt elauwes.||Efvt ehotoses.||Efv hvtkat aha catan hompes.|
|Aela, aha catat efv hvtkan hompes.||Efvt ahan eyaces.||Ahan ceyacv?|
Then, translate these silly English sentences below into Creek.
It's a white potato.
The potato is red.
A red dog sees.
The red dog sees you.
"You wanna dog?"
The white potato eats a red potato.
A dog eats the white potato.
Do you see a white potato?
Some Vocabulary Hints:
|Ælah, ælah!||A general exclamation such as "Good Grief!" or #$%*&!|
|Hompetv||"to eat" (type I)|
|Mahetv||"to be tall" (Type II)|
|Yacetv||"to want, need, desire" (TYPE II)|