First, Let's Name Some Things in Context, 

Then We'll Explain & Expand


Nouns, simply stated, are names--nothing more, nothing less. Most dashes "-" are optional. They are helpful for beginning students--that's why we chose to maintain them. Green marks verb endings, red marks where the action of the verb stops, that is, marks the object/s in a sentence. Purple colored words or letters give or add additional information, direction or meaning to a word. Subjects, when you finally meet them, are marked with blue. If you don't have a color printer, simply keep a few color pencils or highlighters on hand. Adjectives and adverbs will just be called modifiers for the moment.

Updated: 1 Ehole (November), 1999


Tvlofvn vyis.

I go to town.


Wewvn eskis.

I drink water. (also Owv or Uewv for water)


Kafen fekis.

I pay for coffee.


Kafen hayis.

I make coffee.


Efvn hecis.

I see a dog. (or: the dog)


Vcen hompis.

I eat corn.


Naken hotcis.

I write things. I write stuff.


Cukon v-hueris.

I stand by the house.


Eton oh-hvlkis.

I crawl to the tree. (in direction of, toward)


Hoktēn kerris.

I know the woman. I know her.


Pvfnēn lētkis.

I run fast (swiftly or quickly).



(Pvf modifies the verb--it explains "how")



I place it on the ground (purposeful act).


Caton oh-likis.

I sit upon a rock. (on the rock)


Kafkon makis.

I say to the flea .


Yekcēn mekusvpis.

I pray hard. (yekcēn is a modifier--an adverb)


Efvn mahvyis.

I teach the dog.


Tvkliken nesis.

I buy bread.


Caton noricis.

I cook the rock. (or rocks)


Corakkon ohlikis.

I ride a horse. (also Rakko or Co for horse)


Hoktvcen oh-onayis.

I read to the girl. (or: read to her)


Ak-hvsēn ak-omiyis.

I swim in the pond. (or small lake)


Este-catēt omis.

I am Indian. (Note: Este-catē "equals" the subject)


Hunvnwvn pohis.

I hear the man. (or: a man, or "him" in English)


Opunvkvn spvlkis.

I spell the word. (or: as spelkis)


Cepen svtohkis.

I drive the jeep.



I do not fly (implies physical act).


Vpohkvn vpohis.

I ask a question.


Tribeken vtotkis.

I work for the tribe. (-ke- makes words fit Creek)


Oh-tupvn oh-wakkis.

I lie on the bed. (the top of)


Yvhiketvn yvhikis.

I sing a song.


Cukon oh-yvkvpis.

I walk toward the house.

 The subject of each sentence above is "I" which is an embedded pronoun within the verb ending. The final syllable "-is" which rhymes with the sounds of "Base, Brace or Lace" (or may sound like the "es" in "yes") indicates that the "first person singular" of the verb is doing the action. . . in other words, "I am the one doing it." "I" am the 1st person singular in a sentence. "You" are the 2nd person singular and "he," "she" and "it" are each the 3rd person singular of a sentence.



"A-" a prefix usually indicating "there, far off or over there in the visible distance. It may also direct the action toward the speaker or to some other reference point. Generally, "a-" adds "up, off or from" to meaning.



Ak-, Vk-

Prefix indicating water, in the water or a low damp or marshy location. Also refers to any liquids when used with certain verbs. Common in place names.




Pond, very small compass lake; explained as "see the sun in its water." Ak-hvsë rakko refers to lake or larger enclosed water body.



Cato, catu

Stone or rock. Catuce/catoce is a pebble, small rock; cato-rakko is a boulder or very large rock. "Catu" is now rare.



Cēpe (N. Fl.)

Jeep, most similar four-wheel AT vehicles. From WWII usage.



Corakko, co, rakko

Horse, derived from "big deer-like thing." Also contracted to either Co or Rakko in various communities. Corakko preferred in the N. Fl.




House, building, man-made structure, a general root for many words.




Dog, canine; Efvce means puppy, a little dog.




Indian (lit: "Red person"); Often as 'Ste-catē. Catē means red.




Tree. "To" (DOH) often appears as the first syllable of things made from wood or an integral part of woods dealing with wooden items.




Woman, female, feminine; may also be used for "she" and "her." Plural form is "hoktvke" and the general collective is "hoktvlke."




Girl (Hokte + "-uce" which makes a word younger, smaller or more specific in meaning; also written as "-oce" and "-vce")



Hunvnwv, also Honvnwv

Man, male, masculine. Also used for "he" and "him" occasionally. Plural form is "Hunvntake" or "Hunvntvke." "Hunvntvlke" is the collective form.




Coffee; from the Arabic originally via English and Spanish "café."




Flea, and other little aggravations ! Sometimes used as a rude name.



Nake, Nak-

Thing, and the interrogative for what? Nanvke is the plural form.




Prefix meaning "on, on top of, upon" something. With most verbs of motion or direction it means towards or in that direction.




Word, words, language, talk, speech, voice, human sounds, tale, gossip.



Owv, Wewv, Uewv

All mean water equally. Use preference of your community. The ancient ceremonial form for water was "Ok-uewv" (Okuewv) heard now only in the Harvest Busk formulae in N. Fl or at the final Florida Seminole Hennata prayer of their Fall Dance. In oratory, that word is drawn out as if spelled "Oke-ue-i-wv." There are few traditional oratorical speakers remaining these days.




Modifier meaning quick/quickly, swift/swiftly, fast, with haste. Creek modifiers may serve as both noun adjectives and adverbs with verbs. All modifiers in in "ë" in their base form.



Tribe, Tribeke

"-ke" is added to imported words, if needed, to make them "fit" into the Muskogee sound structure requiring words to end in clear vowels to which markers (case endings) can be attached. Mostly a Florida usage.



Tupv, Topa

Bed, Floor, table, any flat foundational surface of wood. Older ceremonial form of word is "Topvtakv," (wood spread out flat). See Eto




Prefix meaning on the ground, at ground level, on the floor or the ceremonial area around the Sacred Fire. Usually attached to words dealing with placing food on a stove or camp fire or sitting near a fire.




Bread (There is a very interesting origin for this word! Think about early cooking methods and fire on the ground--more later.)




Town, Tvlof-rakko, the Big Town Clan--usually Hitchiti or other non Creek blood lineage. Hvlwe-Talofv, heaven. Root from "etvlwv."



Uewv, Owv, Wewv

See Owv above.




Prefix (short sound). At, against, at side of or underside of something, directed at or against something, occasionally "on" something.








Question, query, one who interrogates, a request, a puzzlement or unclear situation. Also, to purchase, buy or acquire something.




Modifier meaning strong, hard, difficult, power(ful), in authority, strength. Serves as both adjective and adverb. Can augment degree of action. All modifiers in "ē" in their base form.




Noun form meaning song. Also, yvhiketv, "to sing."

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